MENUJU DESENTRALISASI KEBIJAKAN EKONOMI DALAM ISLAM: Pengalaman Dinasti ῾Uṡmaniyyah Abad 16-18 M dan Indonesia di Masa Orde Baru

Yuli Andriansyah(1*),


(1) Islamic University of Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Artikel ini mengkaji model desentralisasi kebijakan ekonomi dalam perspekif Islam dengan menganalisa akar desentralisasi pada Alquran, hadits dan aṡar sahabat serta pengalaman Dinasti ‘Uṡmāniyyah terutama pada abad 16-18M dan pada Indonesia di masa Orde Baru menerapkan kebijakan desentralisasi. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa Islam memberikan peluang pengembangan desentralisasi meskipun model utama pemerintahan yang diakui bersifat sentralistik. Dinasti ‘Uṡmāniyyah yang memiliki wilayah luas menerapkan desentralisasi dengan kekuasaan lokal dipegang oleh pimpinan militer dengan sejumlah derajat kebebasan dalam pengaturan pendapatan di wilayahnya. Masa Orde Baru di Indonesia dimaksudkan untuk mewujudkan pemerintahan yang terdesentralisasi dengan pembangunan berbasis daerah. Namun mengingat keterbatasan daerah dalam aspek sumber pendapatan dan banyaknya pimpinan daerah berlatar belakang militer, semangat desentralisasi berubah menjadi sentralisasi demi alasan stabilitas ekonomi dan pertumbuhan ekonomi. Berdasarkan akar ajaran Islam dan pengalaman sejarah tersebut, desentralisasi dalam kerangka Islam dirumuskan sebagai sebuah pola pemerintahan yang bertujuan mencapai kemajuan ekonomi dan stabilitas politik secara seimbang dengan tetap mengindahkan tujuan syariah.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24235/amwal.v9i1.1280

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