Politeness Utterances in English Discussion

Elia Sapitri(1*), . Prihantoro(2), Sarwo Edy(3), Jumatul Hidayah(4),


(1) IAIN Curup
(2) State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Curup
(3) State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Curup
(4) State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Curup
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the types of maxims according to the principles of politeness as used by tertiary English students in the context of semi-formal discussion. This study used a descriptive qualitative method. 20 intermediate tertiary English students from one of the universities in Bengkulu were involved as the participants of this study. They were selected using a purposive sampling technique. The findings revealed that in the context of semi-formal English discussion, there were four types of maxims representing politeness. They ranged from tact maxim, generosity maxim, approbation maxim, to agreement maxim. Those maxims were realized into several uses of utterances such as requesting, asking, offering, responding, and answering. This study supports a premise that the uses of politeness maxims in English communication contribute to the success of communication per se.

Keywords


English, discussion, communication, maxims, pragmatics of politeness

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., Sorensen, C. K., Walker, D. A., & Razavieh, A. (2010). Introduction to research in education. Measurement (8th ed., Vol. 4). USA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Badrkoohi, A. (2018). The relationship between demotivation and intercultural communicative competence. Cogent Education, 5(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2 018.1531741

Barrett, M., Byram, M., Lázár, I., Gaillard, M. P., & Philippou, S. (2014). Developing intercultural competence through education. (J. Huber & C. Reynolds, Eds.) (Vol. 1). Council of Europe Publishing. F67075 Strasbourg Cedex.

Brown, P., & Levinson, S. (1987). Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. UK: Cambridge University Press.

Byram, M., Gribkova, B., & Starkey, H. (2002). Developing the intercultural dimension in language teaching: A practical introduction for teachers. Strasbourg: The Council of Europe.

Byram, M., & Wenger, M. (2018). Making a difference: Language teaching for intercultural and international dialogue. Foreign Language Annals, (December 2017), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12319

Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.). USA: SAGE publications, Inc.

Fang, F. G. (2017). World Englishes or English as a Lingua Franca: Where does English in China stand? English Today, 33(1), 19–24. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266078415000668

Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education. 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Galante, A. (2015). Intercultural communicative competence in English language teaching: Towards validation of student identity. Brazilian English Language Journal, 6(1), 29–39. https://doi.org/10.15448/2178-3640.2015.1.20188

Gall, M. D., Gall, J. P., & Borg, W. R. (2003). Educational research: An introduction (7th ed.). USA: Allyn and Bacon.

Ghasemi, A. A., Ahmadian, M., Yazdani, H., & Amerian, M. (2020). Towards a Model of Intercultural Communicative Competence in Iranian EFL Context : Testing the Role of International Posture , Ideal L2 Self , L2 Self- Confidence , and Metacognitive Strategies. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/17475759.2019.1705877

Grice, H. . (2008). Logic and conversation. USA: University of California, Berkeley.

Gu, X. (2015). Assessment of intercultural communicative competence in FL education : A survey on EFL teachers’ perception and practice in China. Language and Intercultural Communication, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/14708477.2015.1083575

Guba, E. G. (1981). Criteria for assessing the trustworthiness of naturalistic inquiries. Educational Communication and Technology, 29(2), 75–91. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02766777

Hamied, F. A. (2012). English in Multicultural and Multilingual Indonesian Education. Multilingual Education, 1(English as an International Language in Asia: Implications for Language Education), 63–78. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-4578-0_5

Hua, Z. (2013). Exploring Intercultural Communication. Exploring Intercultural Communication: Language in Action. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203798539

Inkaew, M. (2016). An analysis of intercultural communicative competence: Hotel front office personnel in Bangkok. PASAA, 51, 185–214.

Jenkins, J. (2006). Current perspectives on teaching world Englishes and English as a lingua franca. TESOL Quarterly, 40(1), 157. https://doi.org/10.2307/40264515

Kirkpatrick, A. (2018). The development of English as a lingua franca in ASEAN. In J. Jenkins, W. Baker, & M. Dewey (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of English as a Lingua Franca (pp. 138–150). New York: Routlage.

Kusumaningputri, R., & Widodo, H. P. (2018). Promoting Indonesian university students’ critical intercultural awareness in tertiary EAL classrooms: The use of digital photograph-mediated intercultural tasks. System, 72, 49–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2017.10.003

Leech, G. (2011). Prinsip-Prinsip Pragmatik (Terjemahan dalam Bahasa Indonesia). Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia.

Leggett, D. (2014). How to Develop Teachers ’ Intercultural Communicative Competence in the 21 st Century Education. ASILE 2014 Conference, 1–6.

Liddicoat, A. J., & Scarino, A. (2013). Intercultural language teaching and learning. West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Liu, J., & Fang, F. (Gabriel). (2017). Perceptions, awareness and perceived effects of home culture on intercultural communication: Perspectives of university students in China. System, 67, 25–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2017.04.003

López-Rocha, S. (2016). Intercultural communicative competence: creating awareness and promoting skills in the language classroom. In C. Goria, O. Speicher, & S. Stollhans (Eds.), Innovative language teaching and learning at university: enhancing participation and collaboration (pp. 105–111).

Lu, Y., & Hsu, C.-F. (Sandy). (2008). Willingness to Communicate in Intercultural Interactions between Chinese and Americans. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 37(2), 75–88. https://doi.org/10.1080/17475750802533356

Mauranen, A. (2018). Conceptualising ELF. In J. Jenkins, W. Baker, & D. Martin (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of English as a Lingua Franca (pp. 7–24). New York: Routlage.

Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, California 91320: SAGE Publications, I

Morganna, R., Sumardi, & Tarjana, S. S. (2018). Immersion vs. construction: The portrayals of culture in Indonesian EFL learning paradigm. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 14(2), 283–304. Retrieved from https://www.jlls.org/index.php/jlls/article/view/969/385

Morganna, R., Sumardi, & Tarjana, S. S. (2020). Tertiary English students’ attitudes towards intercultural language learning. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 9(3), 657–665. https://doi.org/10.17509/ ijal.v9i3.23216

Rauschert, P., & Byram, M. (2017). Service learning and intercultural citizenship in foreign-language education. Cambridge Journal of Education, (July), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/0305764X.2017.1337722

Sherman, T. (2018). ELF and the EU/wider Europe. In J. Jenkins, W. Baker, & M. Dewey (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of English as a Lingua Franca (pp. 115–125). New York: Routlage.

Sukyadi, D. (2015). The teaching of English at secondary schools in Indonesia. Secondary School English Education in Asia: From Policy to Practice, 123–147.

Tran, T. Q., & Seepho, S. (2017). Intercultural language education : Supportive factors and constraints on EFL learners’ intercultural communicative competence development. Suranaree J. Soc. Sci, 11(1), 1–28.

Xerri, D. (2016). Teaching and learning English in a multicultural classroom: strategies and opportunities. Journal for Multicultural Education, 10(1), 19–32. https://doi.org/10.1108/JME-04-2015-0012

Yule, G. (1996). Pragmatics. New York: Oxford University Press.




DOI: 10.24235/eltecho.v5i2.6723

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 

This Journal is indexed by:

 

 

View My Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.