Development of Argumentation-Based Critical Thinking Skills Tests in Microbiology Laboratory

Evi Roviati(1*), Ari Widodo(2), Widi Purwianingsih(3), Riandi Riandi(4),

(1) Tadris Biologi IAIN Syekh Nurjati Cirebon Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia Bandung
(2) Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
(3) Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
(4) Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


This study aims to develop an instrument used to measure students' argumentation-based critical thinking skills (CTS) in microbiology practicum activities.  This study used a phased model for the development of tools, which consists of the stages of defining constructs and formulating objectives in the form of mapping aspects of the critical thinking skills and the microbiology concepts, formulating test item formats, constructing item questions, constructing scoring guidelines, evaluating by experts for content validation, pilot testing on students and analyzing the results. The test items were then analyzed to determine the validity, reliability, distinguishing features and degree of difficulty. The instrument produced in this study used 6 CTS indicators which were considered the most relevant to argumentation and laboratory activities, and consisted of 18 open-ended questions with 5 contexts. The results of expert validation show that the instrument is content valid and can be used for the next step. Furthermore, the results of the pilot test show that of the 18 questions that were tested, as many as 17 questions were declared valid and 1 question was corrected.  Overall the test questions were declared reliable. Thus, the results of this study recommend the use of questions on this test in studies that measure argumentation-based critical thinking skills in microbiology laboratory.


critical thinking skills, scientific argumentation, argument-based laboratory, instrument development

Full Text:



Adams W. K. & Wieman, C. E. (2011). Development and validation of instruments to measure learning of expert like thinking. International Journal of Science Education, 33(9), 1289-1312. doi:10.1080/09500693.2010.512369.

Amalia, N. F. & Susilaningsih, E. (2014). Pengembangan instrumen penilaian keterampilan berpikir kritis siswa SMA pada materi asam basa. Jurnal Inovasi Pendidikan Kimia, 8(2), 80-89.

Bailin, S. (2002). Critical thinking and science education. Science & Education, 11(4), 361-375.

Benjamin, T. E., Marks, B., Demetrikopoulos, M. K., Rose, J., Pollard, E., Thomas, A., & Muldrow, L. L. (2017). Development and validation of scientific literacy scale for college preparedness in STEM with freshmen from diverse institutions. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 15(4), 607-623.

Cavagnetto, A. R. (2010). Argument to foster scientific literacy: A review of argument interventions in K–12 science contexts. Review of Educational Research, 80(3), 336-371.

Driver, R., Newton P. & Osborne, J. (2000). Establishing the norms of scientific argumentation in classrooms. Science Education, 84(3), 287-312.

Ennis, R. H. (1993). Critical thinking assessment. Theory into practice, 32(3), 179-186.

Facione, P. A. (1990). Critical Thinking: A Statement of Expert Consensus for Purposes of Educational Assessment and Instruction. California Academic Press, California.

Facione, P. A. (2011). Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts. Insight assessment, 2007(1), 1-23.

Fisher, A. (2007). Critical thinking: An introduction. Cambridge University Press.

Griffin, P., Care, E., & Harding, S. M. (2015). Task characteristics and calibration. In Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills (pp. 133-178). Springer, Dordrecht.

Halpern, D.F. (2010). The Halpern critical thinking assessment: Manual. Modling, Austria: Schuhfried GmbH.

Halpern, D.F. (2013). Thought and knowledge: An introduction to critical thinking. New York: Psychology Press.

Jimenez-Aleixandre M.P. & Puig. B. (2012). Argumentation, evidence evaluation and critical thinking." (Chapter 66) in Second International Handbook of Science Education Ed. by B.J. Fraser et al. Springer International Handbooks of Education 24.

Jiménez-Aleixandre, M. P. & Erduran, S. (2007). Argumentation in Science Education Perspectives from Classroom-Based Research. Chapter 1. Argumentation in Science Education: An Overview. Springer Netherlands. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-6670-2.

Kemendikbud, R. I. (2013). Bahan pelatihan kurikulum 2013. Jakarta: Kemdikbud.

Lawson, A. (2004). The nature and development of scientific reasoning: A synthetic view. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 2(3), 307-338. doi:10.1007/s10763-004-3224-2.

National Research Council, (2000). Inquiry and The National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. National Academic Press.

Nawawi, S. & Wijayanti, T. F. (2018). Pengembangan asesmen biologi berbasis keterampilan berpikir kritis terintegrasi nilai Islam. Jurnal Inovasi Pendidikan IPA, 4(2), 136-148.

Niu, L., Behar-Horenstein, L. S. & Garvan, C. W. (2013). Do instructional interventions influence college students’ critical thinking skills? a meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 9, 114–128. doi:10. 1016/j.edurev.2012.12.002

Norris, S.P. (1989). Can we test validly for critical thinking? Educational Researcher, 18(9), 21-26. doi:10. 2307/1176715.

Pascarella, E. T. & Terenzini, P. T. (2005). How college affects students: A third decade of research (Vol. 2). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Putri, F.S. Istiyono E. & Nurcahyanto E. (2016). Pengembangan instrumen tes keterampilan berpikir kritis dalam bentuk pilihan ganda beralasan (politomus) di DIY. Unnes Physical Education Journal, 5(2), 76-84.

Ritdamaya, D. & Suhandi, A. (2016). Konstruksi instrumen tes keterampilan berpikir kritis terkait materi suhu dan kalor. Jurnal Penelitian & Pengembangan Pendidikan Fisika, l(2), 87-96.

Roviati, E. & Widodo, A. (2019). Kontribusi argumentasi ilmiah dalam pengembangan keterampilan berpikir kritis. Titian Ilmu: Jurnal Ilmiah Multi Sciences, 11(2), 56-66.

Sadler, T. D. (2004). Informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues: A critical review of research. Journal of Research in Science Teaching: The Official Journal of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, 41(5), 513-536.

Simon, S., Erduran, S., & Osborne, J. (2006). Learning to teach argumentation: Research and development in the science classroom. International journal of science education, 28(2-3), 235-260.

Tiruneh, D. T., DeCock, M., Weldeslassie, A. G., Elen, J., and Janssen, R. (2017). Measuring critical thinking in physics: development and validation of a critical thinking test in electricity and magnetism. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 15(4), 663-682.

Tiruneh, D. T., Verburgh, A. & Elen, J. (2014). Effectiveness of critical thinking instruction in higher education: A systematic review of intervention studies. Higher Education Studies, 4(1), 1-17. doi:10. 5539/hes.v4n1p1.

Wright, G.B. (2011). Student-centered learning in higher education. International Journal of Teaching and Higher Education, 23(3), 92-97

DOI: 10.24235/sc.educatia.v8i1.475

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 15 times
PDF - 2 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Scientiae Educatia: Jurnal Pendidikan Sains indexed by:


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a 
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Stat Counter (Link)