KARAKTER FENOTIP KEDELAI (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) HASIL POLIPLOIDISASI DENGAN KOLKISIN

Irma Nofitahesti(1), Budi Setiadi Daryono(2*),


(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Abstract - Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) is one of the most important food commodity to fulfill the protein necessity in Indonesia. Although Indonesia has many prime soybean seeds, it cannot fulfill the whole need of soybean and always rely on soybean import. This problem can be solved by increasing the quality and productivity of prime soybean seed by polyploidization with colchicine. This research aimed to study ploidy level and phenotype characters of Anjasmoro soybean which was induced by colchicine. The phenotype characters in this research were stomata size, plant height, total pod in one plant, total seed in one plant, weight of 100 seeds, flowering time, and ripening time of soybean. The ploidy level was analyzed with flow cytometry methode. The data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and Duncan test in SPSS 22 program. The result of this research showed that Anjasmoro soybean did not successfully induced by colchicine using concentration 0.01%, 0.02%, 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.075%, 0.1%, 0.15%, 0.2%, and 0.25% with duration of treatment 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 18, and 24 hours. The treatment with colchicine concentration 0.01% and 0.02% with duration of treatment 10 hours effected the increasing of stomata size, the plant height, and the weight of 100 seeds.

Key words : Soybean, polyploidization, colchicine, phenotype

Abstrak - Kedelai (Glycine max (L.) Merr) merupakan salah satu komoditas pangan penting sebagai sumber protein nabati yang kebutuhannya selalu mengalami peningkatan di Indonesia. Meskipun saat ini Indonesia memiliki banyak varietas kedelai unggul, namun Indonesia masih belum mampu mencukupi kebutuhan kedelai nasional sehingga terus bergantung pada impor kedelai. Permasalahan ini dapat diatasi dengan meningkatkan kualitas dan produktivitas varietas kedelai unggul yang sudah ada melalui teknik poliploidisasi dengan kolkisin. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui derajat ploidi dan karakter fenotip pada kedelai Anjasmoro yang diinduksi dengan kolkisin. Karakter fenotip yang diamati adalah panjang dan lebar stomata, tinggi tanaman, jumlah polong per tanaman, jumlah biji per tanaman, berat 100 biji, umur berbunga, dan umur masak kedelai. Analisis derajat ploidi kedelai dilakukan dengan metode flow cytometry. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan uji statistik one way ANOVA dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan taraf 5% menggunakan program SPSS 22. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kedelai Anjasmoro belum berhasil terinduksi poliploid dengan perlakuan kolkisin konsentrasi 0,01%, 0,02%, 0,025%, 0,05%, 0,075%, 0,1%, 0,15%, 0,2%, dan 0,25% dengan lama waktu perlakuan 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 18, dan 24 jam. Perlakuan kolkisin konsentrasi 0,01% dan 0,02% dengan lama waktu perlakuan 10 jam mempengaruhi peningkatan ukuran stomata, tinggi tanaman, dan berat 100 biji kedelai Anjasmoro.

Kata kunci : Kedelai, poliploidisasi, kolkisin, fenotip


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DOI: 10.24235/sc.educatia.v5i2.957

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