The Proportion of Cognitive Aspects of Question in Mathematics Textbook Based on Marzano's Taxonomy: An Indonesian Case in Implementing New Curriculum

Dhila Ardiani Rasyidi(1), Widodo Winarso(2*),

(1) IAIN Syekh Nurjati Cirebon
(2) IAIN Syekh Nurjati Cirebon
(*) Corresponding Author


Mathematical textbooks are one source of learning that has an important role in learning activities. But the existence of the government-issued mathematics textbook (BSE) which is currently widely used in class X high schools, still does not know the quality of its cognitive aspects. The purpose of this study was to find out the questions contained in class X high school mathematics textbooks had met the criteria of a good question according to the Marzano cognitive aspects. Qualitative descriptive research was used to analyze competency test questions in mathematics books. Data was collected through a question categorization checklist based on Marzano's cognitive aspects validated by experts. Guidelines for question analysis based on Marzano's taxonomy's cognitive aspects consisted of levels of cognitive retrieval, levels of cognitive understanding, levels of cognitive analysis, and levels of cognitive knowledge. The results showed that the percentage of question distribution for the recall rate was 17%, at an understanding level of 14%, 30% analysis level, and 39% knowledge level; in other words, cognitive distribution in high school mathematics class X textbooks was still not ideal according to proportional allocation of aspects cognitive


Mathematical tests; Textbook; Cognitive; MarzanoTaksonomy

Full Text:



Agustina, N. M. K. (2018). Analisis Soal Dalam Buku Teks Matematika SMP Kelas VII Berdasarkan Pada Taksonomi Bloom Revisi (Doctoral dissertation, UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya). Retrieved from

Bellens, K., Van den Noortgate, W., & Van Damme, J. (2020). The Informed Choice: Mathematics Textbook Assessment in Light of Educational Freedom, Effectiveness, and Improvement in Primary Education. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 31(2), 192-211.

Bjorklund, D. F., & Causey, K. B. (2017). Children's Thinking: Cognitive Development and Individual Differences. Sage Publications.

Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2015). Vygotskian and Post-Vygotskian Views on Children's Play. American Journal of Play, 7(3), 371-388.

Bonnett, V. M., Yuill, N., & Carr, A. (2017). Mathematics, Mastery and Metacognition: How Adding a Creative Approach Can Support Children in Maths. Educational and Child Psychology, 34(1), 83-93.

Cahyono, B., & Adilah, N. (2016). Analisis Soal Dalam Buku Siswa Matematika Kurikulum 2013 Kelas VIII Semester I Berdasarkan Dimensi Kognitif Dari TIMSS. JRPM (Jurnal Review Pembelajaran Matematika), 1(1), 86-98.

Collopy, R. (2003). Curriculum Materials As a Professional Development Tool: How a Mathematics Textbook Affected Two Teachers' Learning. The elementary school journal, 103(3), 287-311.

Cross, C. T., Woods, T. A., & Schweingruber, H. E. (2009). Mathematics Learning in Early Childhood: Paths Toward Excellence and Equity. National Academies Press.

Downs, R. M., & Stea, D. (Eds.). (2017). Ima ge and Environment: Cognitive Mapping and Spatial Behavior. Transaction Publishers.

Giani, G., Zulkardi, Z., & Hiltrimartin, C. (2015). Analisis Tingkat Kognitif Soal-Soal Buku Teks Matematika Kelas VII Berdasarkan Taksonomi Bloom. Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika, 9(2), 78-98.

Hadar, L. L. (2017). Opportunities to Learn: Mathematics Textbooks and Students’ Achievements. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 55, 153-166.

Hong, H. (1996). Effects of Mathematics Learning Through Children's Literature on Math Achievement and Dispositional Outcomes. Early childhood research quarterly, 11(4), 477-494.

Hung, Y. H., Chen, C. H., & Huang, S. W. (2017). Applying Augmented Reality to Enhance Learning: A Study of Different Teaching Materials. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 33(3), 252-266.

Ilma, Z., & Pratama, R. K. (2015). Transformation in Indonesian Language Curriculum: Pros and Cons between KTSP 2006 and Curriculum 2013 in Indonesia. In Proceedings of Internationl Conference on Trends in Economics. Humanities and Management (pp. 146-148).

Irvine, J. (2017). A Comparison of Revised Bloom and Marzano's New Taxonomy of Learning. Research in Higher Education Journal, 33, 1-16. Retrieved from

Irvine, J. (2020). Marzano's New Taxonomy as a Framework for Investigating Student Affect. Journal of Instructional Pedagogies, 24, 1-31. Retrieved from

Jacobsen, D. A., Eggen, P. D., & Kauchak, D. P. (2002). Methods for Teaching: Promoting Student Learning. Prentice Hall.

Lambert, V. A., & Lambert, C. E. (2012). Qualitative Descriptive Research: An Acceptable Design. Pacific Rim International Journal of Nursing Research, 16(4), 255-256.

Leonard, J. (2018). Culturally Specific Pedagogy in The Mathematics Classroom: Strategies for Teachers and Students. Routledge.

Maba, W. (2017). Teacher’s Perception on the Implementation of the Assessment Process in 2013 Curriculum. International journal of social sciences and humanities, 1(2), 1-9.

Mahmudi, A. (2019). Analysis of The Junior High School Mathematics Textbook in Indonesia Based on The Content Of Higher Order Thinking Skills. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1387, No. 1, p. 012069). IOP Publishing.

Margalef, L., & Pareja Roblin, N. (2016). Unpacking The Roles of The Facilitator in Higher Education Professional Learning Communities. Educational Research and Evaluation, 22(3-4), 155-172.

Marzano, R. J., & Kendall, J. S. (2006). The New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Corwin Press.

Murdaningsih, S., & Murtiyasa, B. (2016). An Analysis on Eight Grade Mathematics Textbook of New Indonesian Curriculum (K-13) Based on Pisa’s Framework. JRAMathEdu (Journal of Research and Advances in Mathematics Education), 1(1), 14-27.

Ojose, B. (2008). Applying Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development to Mathematics Instruction. The mathematics educator, 18(1), 26–30.

Pike, G. R. (2000). The Influence of Fraternity or Sorority Membership on Students' College Experiences and Cognitive Development. Research in Higher Education, 41(1), 117-139.

Pratama, G. S., & Retnawati, H. (2018). Urgency of Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) Content Analysis in Mathematics Textbook. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1097, No. 1, p. 012147). IOP Publishing.

Prihantoro, C. R. (2015). The Perspective of Curriculum in Indonesia on Environmental Education. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 4(1), 77-83. 77-83.

Remillard, J. T. (1999). Curriculum Materials in Mathematics Education Reform: A Framework for Examining Teachers' Curriculum Development. Curriculum Inquiry, 29(3), 315-342.

Ronda, E., & Adler, J. (2017). Mining Mathematics in Textbook Lessons. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 15(6), 1097-1114.

Saxe, G. B. (2015). Culture and Cognitive Development: Studies in Mathematical Understanding. Psychology Press.

Setyowati, P. A., & Sutrisno, H. (2020). An Analysis of Representation Level and Cognitive Level in Curriculum-2013 Chemistry Textbook. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1440, No. 1, p. 012006). IOP Publishing.

Smith, K. J. (2016). Nature of Mathematics. Cengage Learning.

Susanti, N. Y., Trapsilasiwi, D., & Kurniati, D. (2015). Analisis Tingkat Kognitif Uji Kompetensi pada Buku Sekolah Elektronik (BSE) Matematika SMP/MTs Kelas VII Kurikulum 2013 Berdasarkan Taksonomi Bloom. Kreano, Jurnal Matematika Kreatif-Inovatif, 6(1), 67-75.

Toheri, Winarso. W., & Haqq, A. A. (2019). Three Parts of 21 Century Skills: Creative, Critical, and Communication Mathematics through Academic-constructive Controversy. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 7(11), 2314-2329.

Upton, P. (2012). Belajar Cepat Psikologi: Psikologi Perkembangan. Jakarta: Erlangga.

Vale, I., & Barbosa, A. (2015). Mathematics Creativity In Elementary Teacher Training. Journal of the european teacher education network, 10, 101-109.

Wulandari, Y. O. (2014). Proses Berpikir Aljabar Siswa Berdasarkan Taksonomi Marzano (Doctoral dissertation, Universitas Negeri Malang).

Wuryani, M. T., & Yamtinah, S. (2018). Textbooks Thematic Based Character Education on Thematic Learning Primary School: An Influence. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 4(2), 75-81.

Yang, D. C., & Sianturi, I. A. (2017). An Analysis of Singaporean Versus Indonesian Textbooks Based on Trigonometry Content. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13(7), 3829-3848.

DOI: 10.24235/eduma.v9i2.7374

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Eduma : Mathematics Education Learning and Teaching

View My Stats


Creative Commons License
EduMa: Mathematics Education Learning and Teaching by is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.