EXPLORING COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES IN SPEAKING PRACTICE AT SECOND GRADE STUDENTS OF STATE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
(*) Corresponding Author
Abstract: Speaking is complex skill which includes ability to express ideas, intentions, and emotions of the speaker. Mastering speaking skill, students can convey and express their idea and meaning well. Speaking can be mastered by conducting practice in real conversation continuously, and one of the ways is through impromptu conversation designed by teacher. This research aims (1) to investigate communication strategy types employed by second grade students of XI MIPA 2 when performing impromptu conversation with peer in lesson asking and giving opinion with theme go shopping, and (2) to reveal factors that influence the use of particular types of communication strategies. This research applies descriptive qualitative design. Observation, interview, and documentation were carried out to collect the data to answer research questions. The findings show (1) students use five of nine communication strategies in Tarone (1980) taxonomy of communication strategies, namely language switch (36.93%), mime (27.02%), literal translation (22.52%), appeal for assistance (7.20%), and approximation (6.30%), and (2) the researcher reveals four factors that influence language switch; lack of vocabulary, pronunciation problem, interlocutor, and Indonesian term. Mime is influenced by three factors, such as simple and easy use, vocabulary difficulty, and interlocutor. Literal translation is caused by three factors, namely lack of grammatical knowledge, mother tongue influence, simple and easy use. Likewise, appeal for assistance has three factors; lack of vocabulary, pronunciation problem, and teacher instruction. Last, approximation is caused by two factors, such as conscious and unconscious factor.
Keywords: Speaking practice, impromptu conversation, communication problems, communication strategies, second grade students.
Bialystok, E. (1990). Communication Strategies: A Psychological Analysisof Second Language Use. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Cameron, L. (2001). Teaching Languages to Young Learner. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Corder, S. (1983). Strategies of communication. In C. Faerch, & G. Kasper (Eds.), Strategies in Interlanguage Communication. London: Longman.
Dornyei, Z., & Scott, M. L. (1997). Communication strategies in a second language: Definitions and taxonomies. Language Learning, 47(1), 173-210.http://researchgate.net/
Faerch, C., & Kasper, G. (1983). Strategies in InterlanguageCommunication. London: Longman.
Faerch, C & Kasper, G. (1983a). Plans and strategies in foreign languagecommunication. In Dornyei, Z., & Scott, M. L. (1997). Communication strategies in a second language: Definitions and taxonomies. Language Learning, 47(1), 173-210.
Huang, C.P. (2010). Exploring Factors Affecting the Use of Communication Oral Strategies. ELTJournal, 85-103.http://eltjournal.org/
Huebner, T. (1960). Audio Visual Technique in Teaching Foreign Language. New York: New York University Press.
Karimnia, A. and Zade, S.S. (2007). Communication Strategies: English Language Departments in Iran. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS). (1), 287-300.http://eric.ed.gov/
Mackey, F. William. (1996). Language Teaching Analysis. London: Longman and Co. Ltd.
Miles, Mattew B. dan A. M Huberman. (1992). Analisis Data Kualitatif. In Sugiyono. (2010). Penelitian Pendidikan (Pendekatan Kuantitatif, Kualitatif, dan R & D). Bandung: Alfabeta.
Nunan, D. (1999). Second Language Teaching and Learning. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
Oweis, T. (2013). A literature review on communication strategies in language learning. European Scientific Journal, edition vol.9, No.26, ISSN: 1857 – 7881. doi: http://eujournal.org/River, Wilga M. (1981). 2nd edition: Teaching Foreign Languange Skill. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Oxford, R. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher
Should Know. New York: Newbury House. In Oweis, T. (2013). A literature review on communication strategies in language learning.European Scientific Journal, edition vol.9, No.26, ISSN: 1857 – 7881.
Stack, Edward M. (1966). The language laboratory and modern language teaching. New York: Oxford University Press.
Tarone, E. (1977). Conscious communication strategies in interlanguage: A progress report. In Oweis, T. (2013). A literature review on communication strategies in language learning. European Scientific Journal, edition vol.9, No.26, ISSN: 1857 – 7881.
Tarone, E. (1980). Communication strategies, foreigner talk, and repair in interlanguage. Language Learning, 30, 417-431.http://researchgate.net/
Article MetricsAbstract view : 385 times
PDF - 155 times
- There are currently no refbacks.
This Journal is indexed by:
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.