Integrated STEM through Project Based Learning and Guided Inquiry on Scientific Literacy Abilities in Terms of Self-Efficacy Levels

Hana Lestari(1*), Ima Rahmawati(2),

(1) Sahid Entrepreneurial University, Bogor, Indonesia
(2) Sahid Entrepreneurial University, Bogor, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author



The research aims to describe and find out the different effects between project based learning models and integrated guided inquiry models with STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) on students' scientific literacy abilities in terms of self-efficacy levels. The study was conducted at Cibatok 1 Elementary School. The subject of this study is with 52 students of fifth grade . The research method was a quasi-experiment method with the-factorial 3x2 design. Two classes were given treatment, class V-A was given a project based model treatment, while class V-C was given a guided inquiry model treatment. The instruments used consisted of a questionnaire level of self-efficacy and a test of scientific literacy abilities. for measuring validity and reliability. Data analysis was performed with the two-way Anova test. Based on the results of the study, it was found that: (1) there was no difference in the influence of project based learning learning models and guided inquiry on the ability of scientific literacy; (2) there are differences in the ability of scientific literacy among students in high, medium and low levels of self-efficacy; (3) the scientific literacy ability of students with high levels of self-efficacy is better than middle and low levels of self-efficacy; (4) there is an effect of the interaction of learning models with the level of self-efficacy to learn together on students' scientific literacy abilities. The findings of this study are expected to be of practical use for teachers to develop aspects of self-efficacy and students' scientific literacy abilities.

Keywords: learning models, scientific literacy ability, self-efficacy, STEM.



Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan pengaruh pembelajaran dengan model berbasis proyek dan model inkuiri terbimbing terintegrasi STEM (sains, teknologi, teknik, dan matematika) terhadap kemampuan literasi sains siswa ditinjau dari tingkat efikasi diri. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Sekolah Dasar Negeri Cibatok 1, dengan subjek penelitian siswa kelas V yang berjumlah 52 orang. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode quasi eksperimen dengan desain faktorial 3X2. Terdapat dua kelas yang diberikan perlakuan, kelas V-A diberikan perlakuan model berbasis proyek, sedangkan kelas V-C diberi perlakuan model inkuiri terbimbing. Instrumen yang digunakan terdiri dari angket tingkat efikasi diri dan tes kemampuan literasi sains, instrumen tersebut telah melalui uji validitas dan reliabilitas. Analisis data dilakukan dengan uji Anova dua jalur. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, ditemukan bahwa: (1) tidak terdapat perbedaan pengaruh model pembelajaran project based learning dan Inkuiri terbimbing terhadap kemampuan literasi sains; (2) terdapat perbedaan kemampuan literasi sains antara siswa dengan tingkat efikasi diri tinggi, sedang dan rendah; (3) kemampuan literasi sains siswa yang tingkat efikasi diri tinggi lebih baik dari tingkat efikasi diri sedang dan rendah; (4) terdapat pengaruh interaksi model pembelajaran dengan tingkat efikasi diri secara bersama-sama terhadap kemampuan literasi sains siswa. Temuan penelitian ini diharapkan dapat digunakan secara praktis bagi guru untuk mengembangkan aspek self-efficacy dan kemampuan literasi sains siswa.

Kata kunci: model pembelajaran, kemampuan literasi sains, efikasi diri, STEM.

Full Text:



Ait, K., Rannikmäe, M., Soobard, R., Reiska, P., & Holbrook, J. (2015). Students’ Self-Efficacy and Values Based on A 21st Century Vision of Scientific Literacy – A Pilot Study. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 177(July 2014), 491–495.

Alberto, J., Gonçalves, P., & Hess, A. (2015). Creating a Project based Learning Environment to Improve Project Management Skills of Graduate Students. Creating a Project based Learning Environment to Improve Project Management Skills of Graduate Students, 3(2), 120–130.

Arslan, A. (2014). Transition between Open and Guided Inquiry Instruction. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 141, 407–412.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy : Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change. 84(2), 191–215.

Becker, K., & Park, K. (2011). Effects of integrative approaches among science , technology , engineering , and mathematics ( STEM ) subjects on students ’ learning : A preliminary meta-analysis. Journal of STEM Education, 12(5), 23–38.

Bell, R. L., Blair, L. M., Crawford, B. A., & Lederman, N. G. (2003). Just do it? Impact of a science apprenticeship program on high school students’ understandings of the nature of science and scientific inquiry. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 40(5), 487–509.

Bell, S. (2010). Project based Learning for the 21st Century: Skills for the Future. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 83(2), 39–43.

Betthäuser, B. A., Bourne, M., & Bukodi, E. (1970). Understanding the Social Mobility Chances of Children from Working- Class Backgrounds in Britain : How Important are Cognitive Ability and Locus of Control ? 1–20.

Bybee, R., McCrae, B., & Laurie, R. (2009). PISA 2006: An assessment of scientific literacy. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46(8), 865–883.

Carlson, J. L. (2008). Effect of Theme-Based, Guided Inquiry Instruction on Science Literacy in Ecology.

Ceylan, S., & Ozdilek, Z. (2015). Improving a Sample Lesson Plan for Secondary Science Courses within the STEM Education. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 177(July 2014), 223–228.

Daugherty, M. K. (2013). The Prospect of an “A” in STEM Education. Journal of STEM Education: Innovations and Research, 14(2), 10–15.

Douglas, E. P., & Chiu, C.-C. (2012). Process-oriented Guided Inquiry Learning in Engineering. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 56(Ictlhe), 253–257.

Elahi, S., Amrai, K., & Javad, M. (2011). The relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement in high school students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 765–768.

Gherardini, M. (2016). Pengaruh Metode Pembelajaran Dan Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Terhadap Kemampuan Literasi Sains. Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar, 7(2), 253.

Gormally, C., Brickman, P., & Lut, M. (2012). Developing a test of scientific literacy skills (TOSLS): Measuring undergraduates’ evaluation of scientific information and arguments. CBE Life Sciences Education, 11(4), 364–377.

Gormally, C., Brickman, P., Hallar, B., & Armstrong, N. (2009). Effects of Inquiry-based Learning on Students’ Science Literacy Skills and Confidence. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 3(2).

Haciomeroglu, G. (2019). The Relationship between Elementary Students ’ Achievement Emotions and Sources of Mathematics Self-efficacy To cite this article : The Relationship between Elementary Students ’ Achievement Emotions and Sources of Mathematics Self-efficacy.

Han, S., Rosli, R., Capraro, M. M., & Capraro, R. M. (2016). The effect of Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) project based learning (PBL) on students’ Achievement in four mathematics topics. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 13(Specialissue), 3–30.

Jack Holbrook, M. R. (2009). The Nature of Science Education for enhancing Scientific Literacy. International Journal of Science Education, 12, 1537–1546.

Khan, M. (2013). Academic Self-Efficacy , Coping , and Academic Performance in College. International Journal Of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities, 5(October).

Laboy-Rush, D. (2011). Integrated STEM Education through Project based Learning. Learning.Com, 12. 101207 final[1].pdf

Land, M. H. (2013). Full STEAM ahead: The benefits of integrating the arts into STEM. Procedia Computer Science, 20, 547–552.

Liu, X. (2009). Beyond science literacy: Science and the public. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 4(3), 301–311.

Morrison, J. S. (2006). STEM_Articles.pdf (p. 20).

Musa, F., Mufti, N., Latiff, R. A., & Amin, M. M. (2012). Project based Learning (PjBL): Inculcating Soft Skills in 21st Century Workplace. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 59(2006), 565–573.

Quan, G. M., & Elby, A. (2016). Connecting self-efficacy and views about the nature of science in undergraduate research experiences. 020140, 1–14.

Quint, J., & Condliffe, B. (2018). Project based Learning: A Promising Approach to Improving Student Outcomes. Issue Focus. Mdrc, January.

Saribas, D., & Teksoz, G. (2014). The Relationship between Environmental Literacy and Self-efficacy Beliefs toward Environmental Education ScienceDirect The relationship between environmental literacy and self-efficacy beliefs toward environmental education. June 2015.

Schunk, D. H. (1985). Self-Efficacy And Classroom Learning. Psycology in the Schools, 22(2), 208–223.

Tang, Y., & Wei, H. (2013). The Journal of Academic Librarianship Distance Learners ’ Self-ef fi cacy and Information Literacy Skills. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 39(6), 517–521.

Turiman, P., Omar, J., Daud, A. M., & Osman, K. (2012). Fostering the 21st Century Skills through Scientific Literacy and Science Process Skills. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 59, 110–116.

Yusuf, M. (2011). The impact of self-efficacy , achievement motivation , and self- regulated learning strategies on students ’ academic achievement. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 2623–2626.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (1993). Albert Bandura: The Man and his Contributions to Educational Psychology Barry J. Zimmerman and Dale H. Schunk.

DOI: 10.24235/al.ibtida.snj.v7i1.5883

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 10 times
PDF - 5 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

AL IBTIDA Journal Indexed By:




Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

View My Stats


Al Ibtida: Jurnal Pendidikan Guru MI Published by Department of Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Teacher Education, Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teacher Training, IAIN Syekh Nurjati Cirebon In Collaboration with Perkumpulan Dosen Pendidikan Guru Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (PD PGMI) Indonesia.

Editorial Office:

K Building, 1st Floor, Department of Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Teacher Education, Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teacher Training, IAIN Syekh Nurjati Cirebon.  Perjuangan Street of Sunyaragi, Cirebon City, West Java, Indonesia 45132 Phone. 0231-481264, Fax. 0231-489926, Email: